What is the Internet of Things (IoT) and How it works?

What is the Internet of Things (IoT) and How it works?

The Internet has made the whole world as one interconnected network. Social media platforms allow people from all parts of the globe communicate with each other. Job portals enabler recruiters to find talent in any part of the world. The internet has not just brought people into a network, but also machines. This technology is known as the Internet of Things.

1. What is IoT (Internet of Things)?

Internet of Things refers to the network of devices connected via the internet. It allows for real-time communication between machines without any human intervention. The earliest known reference to technology similar to what we now call IoT was discussions about using sensors to operate machines. They even tried to set up an internet-operated vending machine. But then the chips were large and technology was not so updated, so the concept was not successful. After many years, RFID technology was developed. This technology enabled wireless connectivity between chips. In 1999, Kevin Aston came up with the phrase “Internet of Things.” But then it took nearly 10 years for this concept to become a reality. As machine learning and artificial intelligence developed, IoT also started developing at a rapid pace. Now, many organisations and companies are adopting this technology as it has many benefits.

2. What are the benefits of the IoT?

Businesses can greatly benefit by using IoT. This technology can be used to create a seamless workflow in which repetitive tasks can be automated. In some cases, it can be integrated with data analytics. So, the ML-based application can use the data obtained by analytics to self-learn. Automating processes reduce process time and increase in quality. It also reduces the percentage of human errors.

Manufacturing Industries

Sensors can be integrated into the products when they are being manufactured. These sensors can transmit data regarding performance and other metrics. All this information can be used to enhance the quality of the product. At the same time, if the data indicates that any component of the product is likely to collapse or fail, it can be replaced at the earliest. These methods will enhance product quality and performance.

Supply Chain Management

Right data delivered at the right time is one of the most important factors for the success of a supply chain. IoT techniques and solutions can be used to build a network that connects warehouse, logistics, manufacturing unit, and destination company. The network will keep all the stakeholders informed regarding the location of the shipment via GPS. It enables efficient communication and coordination.

3. How IoT Works?

The four major components of an IoT network are sensors & devices, connectivity, data processing, and user interface.


Sensors or devices collect data from the environment around them. Depending on the size and the complexity of the IoT network, it can have just a few or a few thousand sensors. A simple example is a Smartphone that we use every day. It has sensors such as GPS, camera, accelerometer, fingerprint sensor, facial recognition sensor, and such. All these sensors capture the relevant data and pass it on to the processor, which then analysis the data.


The medium used to transfer the data from the sensor to the data processing unit varies from one IoT network to another. The various mediums of connectivity are Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, LAN, WAN, satellite network, cellular network, and wired communication.

Data Processing

The third component refers to the software application that processes the data obtained from the sensors. The data processing depends on the algorithm and the goals of the IoT application.

User Interface

The user interface is where you get to see the results of the analysis. The user interface can be a dashboard, a text message, an alarm, a call or anything else that is used to give you the information.

4. Why Learn the Internet of Things?

Internet of Things is an emerging technology that is fast being adopted across various sectors. IoT applications are used in security, home management, agriculture, smart retail, smart grids, environmental protection, healthcare, and urban management, just to name a few. Skybell, Deako, Mymdband, Particle, and June are a few of the companies that are already producing IoT products. There are other large brands that are also exploring the applications of IoT and artificial intelligence. So, the future is in IoT. Learning the Internet of Things can help you build a career in this domain. Also, IoT professionals are the highest paid in the software domain. So, join IoT training online and upskill yourself and enhance your career prospects.

5. What are the Job Opportunities in Internet of Things?

There are numerous job opportunities available for freshers and working professionals in this domain. The top IoT careers are:

  • Professionals in sensors and actuators
  • Embedded programs engineer
  • Software engineers
  • AWS IoT engineer
  • IoT architect

6. What is the Salary Package of Internet of Things?

The salary depends on various parameters such as experience, certification, graduation, performance, and the city of work. The average salary for freshers in this domain is around Rs 3.5 to 6 lakhs per annum. Mid-level professionals can expect an annual salary package of around 10 to 25 lakhs. Professionals in senior level positions can earn up to one million per year.

7. Who Can Join the Internet of Things Course?

Engineering students who have basic knowledge of computers and the internet can join the Internet of Things course to improve their career prospects. Working professionals who can take up this training are electronics or IT engineers, embedded developers, Cloud solution architects, and network engineers.

8. How to Learn IoT Through LearNow?

LearNow is a reputed training institute based in Bangalore that offers IoT training online. We follow a project-based learning methodology that focuses more on practical applications rather than theoretical sessions. Aspirants who take up our Internet of Things course will need to work on mini projects and a big project. There are many benefits that you will gain by enrolling in our IoT course. First is that you will be trained by experts who come with industry experience. Also, you get to work on real-time projects, which will help you easily adapt to the work environment. Finally, we offer placement support. Based on your overall performance and project, we can help you start your career in a reputed organisation.

If you want to build your career in the domain of Internet of Things, you can join our IoT training online. Contact us for more details.

20 Real World IoT (Internet of things) Applications/Examples

20 Real World IoT (Internet of things) Applications/Examples

IoT or Internet of Things is a trending technology that has applications in many sectors, from security to farming. IoT can be defined as a network of devices that are interconnected with each other. The number of devices in an IoT network can be anywhere between 2 or 3 to hundreds. Sensor technology and automation are very important functions in IoT. In this blog, we will look into 20 real world Internet of Things examples.

Application 1: Connected Car

You would have read about cars that run by themselves in sci-fi books or watched them in movies. AI and IoT have made that dream a reality. Now, there are cars that can run by themselves. The self-run cars can work on voice commands transferred over a connected smartphone. They can also predict machine failure in the early stages or even before they happen. A smart car is capable of analysing obstacles and blocks and preventing accidents, but scientists are still not sure if smart cars can handle the traffic conditions on the road. Right now, connected cars are suitable for controlled environments.

Application 2: Smart Home

While talking about IoT applications, Smart Home is one of the first things that everyone talks about. A smart home IoT connects appliances used at homes such as washing machine, coffee maker, microwave oven, security system, air conditioner, and refrigerator, and even the lighting system and the door. You can control all the devices from your smartphone or computer system. The appliances can also be automated to start and stop at specific times. When you are going back home in the evening, you can activate the lights at home just as you get near to your house. You can also check if the door is locked or if the dishwasher is turned off right from the connected device. IoT Smart homes can help you save on electricity.

Application 3: Smart City

Smart City is a dream that can be made real with the help of IoT and artificial intelligence. This network can include water management, street lighting, electricity management, traffic management, waste management and more. By integrating sensors in buildings, we can detect wind pressure, seismic activities, and other natural factors to predetermine natural calamities.

Application 4: Precision Farming

Another of IoT’s applications is in precision farming. Data science tools can be used to collect and analyse data such as humidity, soil pH, weather conditions, rainwater availability, and lots more. The nutrients in the soil and its pH can be analysed to determine which plants will grow best. IoT can be used to remotely activate the water pump or turn it off while irrigating the fields. It can also be used to control the flow of water in drip irrigation. There are numerous other ways in which technology can be used to improve agricultural practises and enhance yields.

Application 5: Agricultural Drone

A drone can be used to survey large stretches of land to see if there are any problems such as rodent and pest attacks, evaluate the health of the crop and check if there is any water stagnation in the fields. Drones can also be used to spray fertilizers and weedicides in the field.

Application 6: Smart Grid

A Smart Electric Grid can be used to optimize electricity usage based on customer requirements. When the load is heavy, it can give recommendations to customers to reduce usage. In the case of electric failure, the electric grid can be programmed to reroute electricity.

Application 7: Connected Factories

A connected factory can be built using IoT. This technology can take over the job of a supervisor and still do more. The factory can be run round the clock with minimal human intervention as most of the tasks and transport are automated. The labourers can be asked to work on safe tasks while dangerous tasks can be handled by machines.

Application 8: Smart Retail

IoT can make shopping a more enjoyable experience for customers. There are many ways in which AI and ML can be applied in large retail outlets. Automated checkout counters reduce the need for long queues and allow customers to self-checkout their purchased items. The bill can be paid via digital payments. Sensors can be placed on the shelves, which will send notifications when the products are out of stock or if the stock has reduced. Automated inventory management makes it easy to manage product availability in the store.

Application 9: Supply Chain Management by IoT

Supply chain management is a complex process that involves many steps and human intervention in many areas. IoT can help streamline the supply chain management process, right from the procurement step to the delivery stage. Shipment tracking, inventory management, scheduling of product arrival and departure, and other processes involved in supply chain management can be automated and connected to ensure a seamless experience.

Application 10: Traffic Monitoring System by IoT

IoT can also be effectively used for traffic monitoring with minimal human intervention. The traffic signals across different roads can be connected and designed to change based on a specific algorithm. It will need human intervention only in cases when there is an ambulance movement or any other emergency. Surveillance cameras can be set up beside traffic signals or other parts of the road to monitor traffic. The videos captured can be studied to check for traffic violators or any other purpose.

Application 11: Forest Fire Detection by IoT

Remember the recent Amazon fire and that huge fire in Australia that destroyed millions of acres of forest cover, wildlife and even human life and property? In most cases, forest fires can be stopped if detected early. Different kinds of sensors such as temperature sensor, humidity sensor, soil moisture sensor, accelerometer sensor, ultrasonic sensor and others can be setup to track and identify minute changes in the environment. The data gathered by the sensors can be analysed to see if there are any indications for a forest fire. If so, precautions can be taken to prevent this natural calamity.

Application 12: Portable Water Quality Assurance

A survey shows that if the current rate of environmental pollution continues, then nearly one-third of the world population will not have access to good portable water. Sensors can be used to detect salinity, pH, turbidity, oxidation-reduction rate, and other parameters to determine the quality of water. The sensors can also be used to detect arsenic or lead poisoning at the early stages. IoT can be used to determine the quality of water in reservoirs to ensure that all residents get good quality water.

Application 13: Structural Health Monitoring

Structural health monitoring through IoT helps check the stability of construction at periodic intervals. Sensors can help collect data related to structure strain, vibrations, crack widths, moisture, and lots more. The data can be analysed to evaluate the remaining life of the structure.

Application 14: Radioactivity Monitoring

Nuclear power plants generate huge volumes of power. The downside is that there is always a chance for radioactive leaks, which can lead to very dangerous consequences. IoT applications can be used to continually monitor radioactive levels in the nuclear reactor and the surrounding regions. GM counters can be used to gauge the radioactive levels and send the data to the Cloud. A Node MCU and GPS can be used to detect the location from where the data was sent. All this information can be collated to identify risks at an early stage.

Application 15: IoT Controlled Golf Course

All IoT application examples are not just for environmental protection and individual safety. There are a few applications that are also used in sports, for example golf. There are many factors such as humidity, soil moisture levels, rainfall, and other conditions that determine the gameplay. Using sensors, all these factors can be monitored and updates sent to a connected device. The golf course can be neatly maintained based on this information. At the same time, this data can be shared with golfers, which will help them plan their game.

Application 16: IoT in Packaging Industry

Market studies determine that the packaging industry is set to grow by nearly 18% in the next year. This growth can be attributed to the fast development of the e-commerce sector and online shopping. As more products are being delivered to the doorstep, the demand for packages is also in the increase. IoT solutions can be used to automate certain processes in packaging manufacturing, which can reduce time, money, and human intervention. Digital labels can be affixed to packages to make tracking easy and efficient.

Application 17: Landslide Detection by IoT Application

Landslides are natural calamities that happen because of both human activity and natural phenomena. Landslides lead to loss of lives and property. Sensors can help determine soil moisture levels and soil movement, and send notifications with location details. The data can be analysed to predict possible landslides in a location. Preventive and precautionary action can be taken to prevent landslides, if possible or at least life and property.

Application 18: The Volume of Visitors Check by Smart Phone Detection

This application comes handy while monitoring large events where there is no limit to the number of visitors. IoT sensors can be placed at the entry, exit, and public transportation areas. The sensors collate data regarding the number of people and maximum people movement areas. This data can be analysed to calculate visitor’s volumes, average stay time, and people behaviour. The information can be used while planning other such events.

Application 19: Waste Management IoT Application

Waste management is a critical problem that governments all over the world are facing. There is so much waste being generated almost every day that managing it is a humungous task. IoT waste management involves setting up sensors on each bin placed in different locations across the city. When the waste is filled to a threshold level, a notification is sent to the connected device via Cloud. Based on the analysis of the notifications, the administrator can prepare a schedule for removing the waste from the bins.

Application 20: Urban Noise Detection

Noise pollution can be controlled by using IoT applications. Sensors can be used to detect noise levels in different parts of the city, and more so near hospitals, schools, and other regions. If the noise levels are higher than mandatory levels, then the requisite steps can be taken to reduce the noise.


IoT is bringing about a huge change in different sectors across verticals and horizontals. By properly using this emerging technology, we can change the shape of the future. Many leading companies have realised the importance of IoT and are investing in research and development in this field. The Internet of Things is a technology that is here to stay.

AWS vs Azure vs GCP-The IoT Rat Race

AWS vs Azure vs GCP-The IoT Rat Race

A defining IoT battle of our time is now between different cloud platform: Azure vs AWS vs Google and who will win the market. This is the three most popular IoT platforms used nowadays. But before knowing about these platforms, let’s discuss what led to the development of these platforms.

One of the major milestones in the field of technology is the emergence of IoT, as it opened up vast possibilities in the technology sector. Now have a look at some of the benefits you get in your day to day activities because of IoT.

  • It has made possible to bring the full power of the internet in varied devices, appliances.
  • It is because of IoT now you have homes with lightning, doors along with heating and cooling system that is controlled by Smartphones.
  • Then there are several Smartwatches and fitness bands that can easily monitor all your important statistics all over the day and makes you alert when something unusual occurs.

So, with so many benefits, we are required to make rapid IoT development, design good IoT devices. It also increases the amount spent on an IoT developer, so to decrease it various IoT platforms have been created. These platforms facilitate easy and quick IoT development. Thus, at present three popular IoT platforms are Azure, Google, and AWS. Let’s know in details about each of this platform:

  • Microsoft Azure: It is a Microsoft cloud solution that provides a good amount of cloud-based services like virtual machines, storage solutions, database management systems, messaging platforms and many more. The IoT platform offers several Azure services that can be used in IoT product development like downtime prediction, distant monitoring of IoT devices and easy integration with existing services. It is also cost-effective as compared to other IoT platforms.
  • Google: Google provides cloud computing services called Google cloud and its IoT platform called Google Cloud IoT platform. It is a little expensive than Azure but less than AWS. It is the third-largest IoT platform at present.
  • AWS: In the rat race, AWS is far in the lead. All IoT targeted features are present in the WS IoT platform. As compared to another platform it is little expensive.

Adopting cloud computing has rapidly become an important driving service for several businesses today when businesses are moved out from data centers to cut down costs and enhance agility. There were some early concerns on security and data sovereignty in these platforms which were later addressed by cloud vendors.

To know more about the IoT rat race between three platforms have a look at some of the points where we can compare them and it is easy to know which suits best for your organization.

  • Features and services offered: Which IoT platform to choose depends on the need of each customer and the payloads that are running. This also helps in knowing which platform leads. All three platforms AWS, Azure, and Google provide almost the same capabilities with reliable communication, networking, and storage along with auto-scaling, plus security and recognition management features.
  • AWS, Microsoft Azure and Google Cloud Platform offer largely similar basic capabilities around flexible compute, storage and networking. They all share the common elements of a public cloud: But still, AWS provides a large depth of services with analytics, networking, management tools, security, etc and leads the race.
  • Compute, database and networking and storage: For compute AWS offer EC2 instances that can be customized with several options. It also offers several other services like Elastic Beanstalk, EC2 container service, etc. Azure compute offering revolves around Virtual machines along with other tools like cloud services and resource manager that help in deployment of applications. Google’s Compute provides VMs in Google data centers. Similarly, for storage, Microsoft offers Azure storage service, Queue and file storage, Blob block storage along with site recovery, azure back up, etc. AWS storage includes simple storage, Elastic file system, Elastic Block storage, etc. All three platforms provide the best networking capabilities with automatic server loading balance. In the rat race, all three are at the same level in terms of computing, database and networking and also storage.
  • Customer deals: In terms of customer deals AWS leading the rat race, as it has taken a large consumer deals. It has successfully convinced most of the traditional businesses to move to the cloud.
The future of embedded technologies in IoT

The future of embedded technologies in IoT

The innovation in the sector of electronics, as well as wireless communications, has led to better commune with devices present among us. Embedded technologies or embedded system is an important part of all the latest electronic components. They are utilized to run certain tasks and consume very less power. Some of the electronic devices where embedded technology is used are a remote control, microwave ovens, sensors, actuators, washing machines, etc. Especially they are used in the large device for carrying out certain functions like in HVAC systems they are used as network thermostats. In-home automation systems are utilized as wired or wireless networking for automation and control of security, monitoring, control lights, etc. Now coming to the topic, you must be wondering how embedded technologies will be used in the Internet of Things or IoT solutions mostly within specific industry types or IIoT applications? IoT is steadily niggling into our lives and will become even more persuasive in the future. It will be something more than just a concept and there will revolutionization of all interaction between the embedded devices. Some of the major areas that will get transformation because of embedded technologies are Real-Time Operating Systems, microcontrollers and microprocessors along with memory footprints, open-source communities, and developers.
What is Embedded Technology or System and How They Work?

Well! These are systems that are highly personalized, created and programmed according to the user needs. The conventional embedded systems are the electronic components that contain a microprocessor, memory card, and software program that runs instructions, operate the tools and systems and follow strong programming that is embedded inside the microchip.

How Embedded Technologies Will Play its Role in IoT?

It is because of their unique characteristics and the features within like real-time computing, high availability, less power consumption as well as low maintenance, they are now an important enabler of IoT. The developers of the embedded system hardware and software are trying to make these transformations in their products to take benefit of the growing IoT market.

The latest embedded technologies will need some alterations in the conventional embedded system design and architecture so that it suits real-time operations, the small size of the unit, consumes less power and is cost-effective. When microcontroller, SoC and RISC are used, it increases the scope in IoT.
Embedded technologies will help in easy management of hardware resources, processes data. Hosts applications that too on a real-time basis. It clarifies the real-time task processing time, interrupts latency, reliability for a long period for both hardware and software applications specifically for devices and networks with low power and memory constraints. This will make a great contribution to IoT in the future along with enhanced reliability degree and time consistency in between application task acceptance and its completion.

To facilitate more and more embedded technologies in IoT, following factors are being examined

Detail analysis of those products that will be developed to support IoT

Major alterations in conventional RTOS needed to match the IoT performance.

Hardware changes to match the IoT requirements.
Kinds of peripherals

Tools that support the embedded system processing in IoT.

A report named Embedded Internet of Things Ecosystem offers the five-year forecast for embedded technologies in IoT within the period 2016-2021.

Thus, we can say that the future of embedded technologies in IoT depends on the development of technologies that facilitate rapid communication along with high interwoven connections among varied devices. The future is very bright because the internet nowadays is easily accessible in every part of the world. Because of IoT with embedded technologies, people will get easy access to all products at home even if they are not at home.

IIoT – The Story Behind Upgradation from SCADA

IIoT – The Story Behind Upgradation from SCADA

One of the most popular words these days is IoT. We are always hearing stories about how all devices will be connected by the year 2025. People are more interested in knowing about the Internet of Things and how all smarter devices is bringing a big change in this world. IoT and cloud both have varied things to offer than only customer grade conveniences. Both cloud and IoT combined have some specialized applications in the industrial sector that created IIoT or Industrial IIoT. But at present, there is already a technology functioning for more than 20 years. This technology is SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition). It is a system that posses software and hardware elements that facilitates the industrial organizations to Have easy control over industrial processes both locally as well as remote locations. Supervise, collect and process all real-time data. Have direct interaction with some devices like sensors, pumps, valves and even more through software called human-machine interface. Recording the events into a soft file. So, when remote supervision and asset control is already done with SCADA, then what changes or improvement will IIoT will bring? This is one of the common and obvious questions that are arising in mind of most of the people and industries. Well! The answer to this question we can get by comparing both for industrial use. This will help in clearing the reason why up-gradation from SCADA is required.
So, when remote supervision and asset control is already done with SCADA, then what changes or improvement will IIoT will bring? This is one of the common and obvious questions that are arising in mind of most of the people and industries. Well! The answer to this question we can get by comparing both for industrial use. This will help in clearing the reason why up-gradation from SCADA is required.
Device integration: While using SCADA system integration of devices is not that much easy, sometimes even with devices from the same manufacturer but with different versions. For the development of flawless programmability for all devices and sensors, integration is required and also there is a need for a horizontal platform that can easily operate on varied devices. But on the IoT ecosystem, it depends largely on device integration. The main aim of IIoT is to facilitate easy communication across devices, no matter what version or model they are. IoT makes use of protocol like MQTT to facilitate communication across devices. Cost of system possession: With SCADA, businesses can keep data up to a certain extent and after that limit, this data will be overwritten by new data. This means to store more data industries have to buy more servers with more capacities. Same with software licensing also, for getting more features, SCADA users have to invest in additional licenses for services and have to pay for system up-gradation. But on the other hand, IIoT helps in decreasing the cost for industries as they cut off the requirement of additional software licensing as well as up-gradation by utilizing cloud services. Data insights: With SCADA, industries will have limitations while analyzing historic data. It does not put much stress on the analysis of data that are produced by business daily. The data stored in the SCADA system does not offer much value to the industries and also does not make any contribution to decision making. It is because they do not produce the contextual information. But IIOT shines much better. They store data from all businesses and apply big data processing and machine learning to make some predictions on efficiency and important outcomes. This easily understandable insight helps the company to decrease the sudden equipment failures, know the maintenance requirements and obtain high outcomes from the assets. Scalability: As we know that the SCADA system does not stores or analyze data, it may leave some of the important information from devices. The main cause of not connecting devices is the performance and security of the system. When the user number increase, the band with needed to properly function also increases and this, in turn, increase the total cost of the company. But with IoT, everything is stored in the cloud and can be accessed very easily from any place. Other than that as extra devices can be connected easily, it offers access to every data that can play a major part in deciding for businesses.
So, now with all these benefits of IIoT, the question comes whether it will replace the whole SCADA system?
Well! The answer is yes, even if it may take time as it requires uprooting the whole system and installing another, but it will get upgraded. As IIoT is making things much easier and with less cost, therefore industries will prefer to upgrade.